Transporters of monocarboxylates: characterizaiton and functional roles

Main Article Content

Zejian Liu Meina Wang


The rapid transport of monocarboxylates, such as lactate, pyruvate and β-hydroxybutyrate, across membranes is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. They are mainly transported by three well-characterized protein carrier families: SLC16/monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), SLC5/sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (SMCTs), and mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (MPCs). There are 14 members in the SLC16 family (MCT1-14), however, only 5 of them (MCT1-4 and MCT7) can transport monocarboxylates. This transport process is proton-linked, electroneutral and driven by a concentration gradient of their substrates. MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 have a broad expression pattern in various tissues with affinities in the order of MCT2>MCT1>MCT4. They play important roles in local functions and malfunctions of MCTs have been associated with devastating disorders such as cancer, obesity and ischemia. Two members of the SLC5 family, SLC5A8 (SMCT1) and SLC5A12 (SMCT2), transport monocarboxylates in a Na+-dependent, electrogenic manner with a stoichiometry being 2:1 for Na+/substrate. They play particularly important roles in short-chain fatty acids uptake in large intestine and regulation of uric acid reabsorption in kidney. MPCs (MPC1-2) form a large heterocomplex at the inner membrane of mitochondria and are mainly responsible for pyruvate transport into mitochondrial matrix to fuel Krebs cycle. Genetic mutations within these monocarboxylates carrier genes have been identified as causal factors for many diseases. Thus, a better understanding of their functions and regulations will help advance novel therapeutic interventions under certain pathological conditions.

Article Details

How to Cite
LIU, Zejian; WANG, Meina. Transporters of monocarboxylates: characterizaiton and functional roles. Medical Research Archives, [S.l.], n. 2, apr. 2015. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 july 2018.
monocarboxylate transporter (MCT); sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT); mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC); lactate; pyruvate; metabolism; drug transport; cancer; diabetes
Review Articles


Babu, E., S. Ananth, R. Veeranan-Karmegam, V. Coothankandaswamy, S. B. Smith, T. Boettger, V. Ganapathy, and P. M. Martin. 2011. "Transport via SLC5A8 (SMCT1) is obligatory for 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate to enhance glutathione production in retinal pigment epithelial cells." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci no. 52 (8):5749-57. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6825.

Baker, S. K., M. A. Tarnopolsky, and A. Bonen. 2001. "Expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy." Muscle Nerve no. 24 (3):394-8.

Baud, O., L. Fayol, P. Gressens, L. Pellerin, P. Magistretti, P. Evrard, and C. Verney. 2003. "Perinatal and early postnatal changes in the expression of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 in the rat forebrain." J Comp Neurol no. 465 (3):445-54. doi: 10.1002/cne.10853.

Becker, H. M., N. Mohebbi, A. Perna, V. Ganapathy, G. Capasso, and C. A. Wagner. 2010. "Localization of members of MCT monocarboxylate transporter family Slc16 in the kidney and regulation during metabolic acidosis." Am J Physiol Renal Physiol no. 299 (1):F141-54. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00488.2009.

Benton, C. R., S. E. Campbell, M. Tonouchi, H. Hatta, and A. Bonen. 2004. "Monocarboxylate transporters in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria." Biochem Biophys Res Commun no. 323 (1):249-53. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.084.

Bergersen, L. H., P. J. Magistretti, and L. Pellerin. 2005. "Selective postsynaptic co-localization of MCT2 with AMPA receptor GluR2/3 subunits at excitatory synapses exhibiting AMPA receptor trafficking." Cereb Cortex no. 15 (4):361-70. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhh138.

Bergersen, L., E. Johannsson, M. L. Veruki, E. A. Nagelhus, A. Halestrap, O. M. Sejersted, and O. P. Ottersen. 1999. "Cellular and subcellular expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the pigment epithelium and retina of the rat." Neuroscience no. 90 (1):319-31.

Bergersen, L., A. Rafiki, and O. P. Ottersen. 2002. "Immunogold cytochemistry identifies specialized membrane domains for monocarboxylate transport in the central nervous system." Neurochem Res no. 27 (1-2):89-96.

Bergersen, L., O. Waerhaug, J. Helm, M. Thomas, P. Laake, A. J. Davies, M. C. Wilson, A. P. Halestrap, and O. P. Ottersen. 2001. "A novel postsynaptic density protein: the monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 is co-localized with delta-glutamate receptors in postsynaptic densities of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses." Exp Brain Res no. 136 (4):523-34.

Birsoy, K., T. Wang, R. Possemato, O. H. Yilmaz, C. E. Koch, W. W. Chen, A. W. Hutchins, Y. Gultekin, T. R. Peterson, J. E. Carette, T. R. Brummelkamp, C. B. Clish, and D. M. Sabatini. 2013. "MCT1-mediated transport of a toxic molecule is an effective strategy for targeting glycolytic tumors." Nat Genet no. 45 (1):104-8. doi: 10.1038/ng.2471.

Bonen, A., S. K. Baker, and H. Hatta. 1997. "Lactate transport and lactate transporters in skeletal muscle." Can J Appl Physiol no. 22 (6):531-52.

Bonen, A., M. Heynen, and H. Hatta. 2006. "Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle." Appl Physiol Nutr Metab no. 31 (1):31-9. doi: 10.1139/h05-002.

Bonen, A., D. Miskovic, M. Tonouchi, K. Lemieux, M. C. Wilson, A. Marette, and A. P. Halestrap. 2000. "Abundance and subcellular distribution of MCT1 and MCT4 in heart and fast-twitch skeletal muscles." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab no. 278 (6):E1067-77.

Borthakur, A., A. N. Anbazhagan, A. Kumar, G. Raheja, V. Singh, K. Ramaswamy, and P. K. Dudeja. 2010. "The probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum counteracts TNF-{alpha}-induced downregulation of SMCT1 expression and function." Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol no. 299 (4):G928-34. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00279.2010.

Borthakur, A., S. Saksena, R. K. Gill, W. A. Alrefai, K. Ramaswamy, and P. K. Dudeja. 2008. "Regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) promoter by butyrate in human intestinal epithelial cells: involvement of NF-kappaB pathway." J Cell Biochem no. 103 (5):1452-63. doi: 10.1002/jcb.21532.

Boussouar, F., C. Mauduit, E. Tabone, L. Pellerin, P. J. Magistretti, and M. Benahmed. 2003. "Developmental and hormonal regulation of the monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) expression in the mouse germ cells." Biol Reprod no. 69 (3):1069-78. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.102.010074.

Brauchi, S., M. C. Rauch, I. E. Alfaro, C. Cea, Concha, II, D. J. Benos, and J. G. Reyes. 2005. "Kinetics, molecular basis, and differentiation of L-lactate transport in spermatogenic cells." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol no. 288 (3):C523-34. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00448.2003.

Bricker, D. K., E. B. Taylor, J. C. Schell, T. Orsak, A. Boutron, Y. C. Chen, J. E. Cox, C. M. Cardon, J. G. Van Vranken, N. Dephoure, C. Redin, S. Boudina, S. P. Gygi, M. Brivet, C. S. Thummel, and J. Rutter. 2012. "A mitochondrial pyruvate carrier required for pyruvate uptake in yeast, Drosophila, and humans." Science no. 337 (6090):96-100. doi: 10.1126/science.1218099.

Broer, S., A. Broer, H. P. Schneider, C. Stegen, A. P. Halestrap, and J. W. Deitmer. 1999. "Characterization of the high-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes." Biochem J no. 341 ( Pt 3):529-35.

Brooks, G. A., M. A. Brown, C. E. Butz, J. P. Sicurello, and H. Dubouchaud. 1999. "Cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria have a monocarboxylate transporter MCT1." J Appl Physiol (1985) no. 87 (5):1713-8.

Canis, M., B. Mack, O. Gires, M. H. Maurer, W. Kuschinsky, L. Duembgen, and R. Duelli. 2009. "Increased densities of monocarboxylate transport protein MCT1 after chronic administration of nicotine in rat brain." Neurosci Res no. 64 (4):429-35. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2009.04.017.

Carpenter, L., and A. P. Halestrap. 1994. "The kinetics, substrate and inhibitor specificity of the lactate transporter of Ehrlich-Lettre tumour cells studied with the intracellular pH indicator BCECF." Biochem J no. 304 ( Pt 3):751-60.

Chen, H., L. Wang, J. Beretov, J. Hao, W. Xiao, and Y. Li. 2010. "Co-expression of CD147/EMMPRIN with monocarboxylate transporters and multiple drug resistance proteins is associated with epithelial ovarian cancer progression." Clin Exp Metastasis no. 27 (8):557-69. doi: 10.1007/s10585-010-9345-9.

Chidlow, G., J. P. Wood, M. Graham, and N. N. Osborne. 2005. "Expression of monocarboxylate transporters in rat ocular tissues." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol no. 288 (2):C416-28. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00037.2004.

Chiry, O., W. N. Fishbein, N. Merezhinskaya, S. Clarke, R. Galuske, P. J. Magistretti, and L. Pellerin. 2008. "Distribution of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 in human cerebral cortex: an immunohistochemical study." Brain Res no. 1226:61-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.06.025.

Choi, H. K., D. B. Mount, A. M. Reginato, Physicians American College of, and Society American Physiological. 2005. "Pathogenesis of gout." Ann Intern Med no. 143 (7):499-516.

Coady, M. J., B. Wallendorff, F. Bourgeois, F. Charron, and J. Y. Lapointe. 2007. "Establishing a definitive stoichiometry for the Na+/monocarboxylate cotransporter SMCT1." Biophys J no. 93 (7):2325-31. doi: 10.1529/biophysj.107.108555.

Colca, J. R., W. G. McDonald, G. S. Cavey, S. L. Cole, D. D. Holewa, A. S. Brightwell-Conrad, C. L. Wolfe, J. S. Wheeler, K. R. Coulter, P. M. Kilkuskie, E. Gracheva, Y. Korshunova, M. Trusgnich, R. Karr, S. E. Wiley, A. S. Divakaruni, A. N. Murphy, P. A. Vigueira, B. N. Finck, and R. F. Kletzien. 2013. "Identification of a mitochondrial target of thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizers (mTOT)--relationship to newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier proteins." PLoS One no. 8 (5):e61551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061551.

Cortes-Campos, C., R. Elizondo, C. Carril, F. Martinez, K. Boric, F. Nualart, and M. A. Garcia-Robles. 2013. "MCT2 expression and lactate influx in anorexigenic and orexigenic neurons of the arcuate nucleus." PLoS One no. 8 (4):e62532. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062532.

Cuff, M. A., D. W. Lambert, and S. P. Shirazi-Beechey. 2002. "Substrate-induced regulation of the human colonic monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1." J Physiol no. 539 (Pt 2):361-71.

Cui, D., and M. E. Morris. 2009. "The drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyrate is a substrate for sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT) 1 (SLC5A8): characterization of SMCT-mediated uptake and inhibition." Drug Metab Dispos no. 37 (7):1404-10. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.027169.

Cupeiro, R., P. J. Benito, N. Maffulli, F. J. Calderon, and D. Gonzalez-Lamuno. 2010. "MCT1 genetic polymorphism influence in high intensity circuit training: a pilot study." J Sci Med Sport no. 13 (5):526-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2009.07.004.

Cupeiro, R., D. Gonzalez-Lamuno, T. Amigo, A. B. Peinado, J. R. Ruiz, F. B. Ortega, and P. J. Benito. 2012. "Influence of the MCT1-T1470A polymorphism (rs1049434) on blood lactate accumulation during different circuit weight trainings in men and women." J Sci Med Sport no. 15 (6):541-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.03.009.

Dai, M., Y. Yang, and X. Shi. 2011. "Lactate dilates cochlear capillaries via type V fibrocyte-vessel coupling signaled by nNOS." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol no. 301 (4):H1248-54. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00315.2011.

de Oliveira, A. T., C. Pinheiro, A. Longatto-Filho, M. J. Brito, O. Martinho, D. Matos, A. L. Carvalho, V. L. Vazquez, T. B. Silva, C. Scapulatempo, S. S. Saad, R. M. Reis, and F. Baltazar. 2012. "Co-expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and its chaperone (CD147) is associated with low survival in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)." J Bioenerg Biomembr no. 44 (1):171-8. doi: 10.1007/s10863-012-9408-5.

Debernardi, R., K. Pierre, S. Lengacher, P. J. Magistretti, and L. Pellerin. 2003. "Cell-specific expression pattern of monocarboxylate transporters in astrocytes and neurons observed in different mouse brain cortical cell cultures." J Neurosci Res no. 73 (2):141-55. doi: 10.1002/jnr.10660.

Divakaruni, A. S., S. E. Wiley, G. W. Rogers, A. Y. Andreyev, S. Petrosyan, M. Loviscach, E. A. Wall, N. Yadava, A. P. Heuck, D. A. Ferrick, R. R. Henry, W. G. McDonald, J. R. Colca, M. I. Simon, T. P. Ciaraldi, and A. N. Murphy. 2013. "Thiazolidinediones are acute, specific inhibitors of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A no. 110 (14):5422-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1303360110.

Dubouchaud, H., G. E. Butterfield, E. E. Wolfel, B. C. Bergman, and G. A. Brooks. 2000. "Endurance training, expression, and physiology of LDH, MCT1, and MCT4 in human skeletal muscle." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab no. 278 (4):E571-9.

Englund, G., F. Rorsman, A. Ronnblom, U. Karlbom, L. Lazorova, J. Grasjo, A. Kindmark, and P. Artursson. 2006. "Regional levels of drug transporters along the human intestinal tract: co-expression of ABC and SLC transporters and comparison with Caco-2 cells." Eur J Pharm Sci no. 29 (3-4):269-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2006.04.010.

Enoki, T., Y. Yoshida, J. Lally, H. Hatta, and A. Bonen. 2006. "Testosterone increases lactate transport, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and MCT4 in rat skeletal muscle." J Physiol no. 577 (Pt 1):433-43. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.115436.

Enomoto, A., H. Kimura, A. Chairoungdua, Y. Shigeta, P. Jutabha, S. H. Cha, M. Hosoyamada, M. Takeda, T. Sekine, T. Igarashi, H. Matsuo, Y. Kikuchi, T. Oda, K. Ichida, T. Hosoya, K. Shimokata, T. Niwa, Y. Kanai, and H. Endou. 2002. "Molecular identification of a renal urate anion exchanger that regulates blood urate levels." Nature no. 417 (6887):447-52. doi: 10.1038/nature742.

Fayol, L., O. Baud, A. Monier, L. Pellerin, P. Magistretti, P. Evrard, and C. Verney. 2004. "Immunocytochemical expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the human visual cortex at midgestation." Brain Res Dev Brain Res no. 148 (1):69-76.

Fiaschi, T., A. Marini, E. Giannoni, M. L. Taddei, P. Gandellini, A. De Donatis, M. Lanciotti, S. Serni, P. Cirri, and P. Chiarugi. 2012. "Reciprocal metabolic reprogramming through lactate shuttle coordinately influences tumor-stroma interplay." Cancer Res no. 72 (19):5130-40. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-1949.

Fischer, W., K. Praetor, L. Metzner, R. H. Neubert, and M. Brandsch. 2008. "Transport of valproate at intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) and brain endothelial (RBE4) cells: mechanism and substrate specificity." Eur J Pharm Biopharm no. 70 (2):486-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.05.022.

Fishbein, W. N., N. Merezhinskaya, and J. W. Foellmer. 2002. "Relative distribution of three major lactate transporters in frozen human tissues and their localization in unfixed skeletal muscle." Muscle Nerve no. 26 (1):101-12. doi: 10.1002/mus.10168.

Froberg, M. K., D. Z. Gerhart, B. E. Enerson, C. Manivel, M. Guzman-Paz, N. Seacotte, and L. R. Drewes. 2001. "Expression of monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 in normal and neoplastic human CNS tissues." Neuroreport no. 12 (4):761-5.

Galardo, M. N., M. F. Riera, E. H. Pellizzari, H. E. Chemes, M. C. Venara, S. B. Cigorraga, and S. B. Meroni. 2008. "Regulation of expression of Sertoli cell glucose transporters 1 and 3 by FSH, IL1 beta, and bFGF at two different time-points in pubertal development." Cell Tissue Res no. 334 (2):295-304. doi: 10.1007/s00441-008-0656-y.

Ganapathy, V., E. Gopal, S. Miyauchi, and P. D. Prasad. 2005. "Biological functions of SLC5A8, a candidate tumour suppressor." Biochem Soc Trans no. 33 (Pt 1):237-40. doi: 10.1042/BST0330237.

Garcia, C. K., M. S. Brown, R. K. Pathak, and J. L. Goldstein. 1995. "cDNA cloning of MCT2, a second monocarboxylate transporter expressed in different cells than MCT1." J Biol Chem no. 270 (4):1843-9.

Garcia, C. K., X. Li, J. Luna, and U. Francke. 1994. "cDNA cloning of the human monocarboxylate transporter 1 and chromosomal localization of the SLC16A1 locus to 1p13.2-p12." Genomics no. 23 (2):500-3. doi: 10.1006/geno.1994.1532.

Gerhart, D. Z., B. E. Enerson, O. Y. Zhdankina, R. L. Leino, and L. R. Drewes. 1997. "Expression of monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 by brain endothelium and glia in adult and suckling rats." Am J Physiol no. 273 (1 Pt 1):E207-13.

Gerhart, D. Z., B. E. Enerson, O. Y. Zhdankina, R. L. Leino, and L. R. Drewes. 1998. "Expression of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 by rat brain glia." Glia no. 22 (3):272-81.

Gerhart, D. Z., R. L. Leino, and L. R. Drewes. 1999. "Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 in rat retina." Neuroscience no. 92 (1):367-75.

Gill, R. K., S. Saksena, W. A. Alrefai, Z. Sarwar, J. L. Goldstein, R. E. Carroll, K. Ramaswamy, and P. K. Dudeja. 2005. "Expression and membrane localization of MCT isoforms along the length of the human intestine." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol no. 289 (4):C846-52. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00112.2005.

Goddard, I., A. Florin, C. Mauduit, E. Tabone, P. Contard, R. Bars, F. Chuzel, and M. Benahmed. 2003. "Alteration of lactate production and transport in the adult rat testis exposed in utero to flutamide." Mol Cell Endocrinol no. 206 (1-2):137-46.

Goncalves, P., I. Gregorio, T. A. Catarino, and F. Martel. 2013. "The effect of oxidative stress upon the intestinal epithelial uptake of butyrate." Eur J Pharmacol no. 699 (1-3):88-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.11.029.

Gopal, E., S. Miyauchi, P. M. Martin, S. Ananth, P. Roon, S. B. Smith, and V. Ganapathy. 2007. "Transport of nicotinate and structurally related compounds by human SMCT1 (SLC5A8) and its relevance to drug transport in the mammalian intestinal tract." Pharm Res no. 24 (3):575-84. doi: 10.1007/s11095-006-9176-1.

Gopal, E., N. S. Umapathy, P. M. Martin, S. Ananth, J. P. Gnana-Prakasam, H. Becker, C. A. Wagner, V. Ganapathy, and P. D. Prasad. 2007. "Cloning and functional characterization of human SMCT2 (SLC5A12) and expression pattern of the transporter in kidney." Biochim Biophys Acta no. 1768 (11):2690-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2007.06.031.

Gupta, N., P. M. Martin, P. D. Prasad, and V. Ganapathy. 2006. "SLC5A8 (SMCT1)-mediated transport of butyrate forms the basis for the tumor suppressive function of the transporter." Life Sci no. 78 (21):2419-25. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.10.028.

Halestrap, A. P. 1975. "The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier. Kinetics and specificity for substrates and inhibitors." Biochem J no. 148 (1):85-96.

Halestrap, A. P. 2012. "The monocarboxylate transporter family--Structure and functional characterization." IUBMB Life no. 64 (1):1-9. doi: 10.1002/iub.573.

Halestrap, A. P., and N. T. Price. 1999. "The proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family: structure, function and regulation." Biochem J no. 343 Pt 2:281-99.

Halestrap, A. P., X. Wang, R. C. Poole, V. N. Jackson, and N. T. Price. 1997. "Lactate transport in heart in relation to myocardial ischemia." Am J Cardiol no. 80 (3A):17A-25A.

Hanu, R., M. McKenna, A. O'Neill, W. G. Resneck, and R. J. Bloch. 2000. "Monocarboxylic acid transporters, MCT1 and MCT2, in cortical astrocytes in vitro and in vivo." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol no. 278 (5):C921-30.

Hashimoto, T., R. Hussien, H. S. Cho, D. Kaufer, and G. A. Brooks. 2008. "Evidence for the mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex in rat neurons: demonstration of an essential component of brain lactate shuttles." PLoS One no. 3 (8):e2915. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002915.

Hashimoto, T., R. Hussien, S. Oommen, K. Gohil, and G. A. Brooks. 2007. "Lactate sensitive transcription factor network in L6 cells: activation of MCT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis." FASEB J no. 21 (10):2602-12. doi: 10.1096/fj.07-8174com.

Hashimoto, T., S. Masuda, S. Taguchi, and G. A. Brooks. 2005. "Immunohistochemical analysis of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expression in rat plantaris muscle." J Physiol no. 567 (Pt 1):121-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2005.087411.

Hatta, H., M. Tonouchi, D. Miskovic, Y. Wang, J. J. Heikkila, and A. Bonen. 2001. "Tissue-specific and isoform-specific changes in MCT1 and MCT4 in heart and soleus muscle during a 1-yr period." Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab no. 281 (4):E749-56.

Herubel, F., S. El Mouatassim, P. Guerin, R. Frydman, and Y. Menezo. 2002. "Genetic expression of monocarboxylate transporters during human and murine oocyte maturation and early embryonic development." Zygote no. 10 (2):175-81.

Herzig, S., E. Raemy, S. Montessuit, J. L. Veuthey, N. Zamboni, B. Westermann, E. R. Kunji, and J. C. Martinou. 2012. "Identification and functional expression of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier." Science no. 337 (6090):93-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1218530.

Hinoi, E., T. Takarada, Y. Tsuchihashi, S. Fujimori, N. Moriguchi, L. Wang, K. Uno, and Y. Yoneda. 2006. "A molecular mechanism of pyruvate protection against cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species in osteoblasts." Mol Pharmacol no. 70 (3):925-35. doi: 10.1124/mol.106.024398.

Ho, J., M. B. de Moura, Y. Lin, G. Vincent, S. Thorne, L. M. Duncan, L. Hui-Min, J. M. Kirkwood, D. Becker, B. Van Houten, and S. J. Moschos. 2012. "Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma." Mol Cancer no. 11:76. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-11-76.

Hosoyamada, M., Y. Takiue, T. Shibasaki, and H. Saito. 2010. "The effect of testosterone upon the urate reabsorptive transport system in mouse kidney." Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids no. 29 (7):574-9. doi: 10.1080/15257770.2010.494651.

Hugo, S. E., L. Cruz-Garcia, S. Karanth, R. M. Anderson, D. Y. Stainier, and A. Schlegel. 2012. "A monocarboxylate transporter required for hepatocyte secretion of ketone bodies during fasting." Genes Dev no. 26 (3):282-93. doi: 10.1101/gad.180968.111.

Ioachimescu, A. G., D. M. Brennan, B. M. Hoar, S. L. Hazen, and B. J. Hoogwerf. 2008. "Serum uric acid is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a preventive cardiology information system (PreCIS) database cohort study." Arthritis Rheum no. 58 (2):623-30. doi: 10.1002/art.23121.

Iwanaga, T., T. Kuchiiwa, and M. Saito. 2009. "Histochemical demonstration of monocarboxylate transporters in mouse brown adipose tissue." Biomed Res no. 30 (4):217-25.

Iwanaga, T., K. Takebe, I. Kato, S. Karaki, and A. Kuwahara. 2006. "Cellular expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) in the digestive tract of the mouse, rat, and humans, with special reference to slc5a8." Biomed Res no. 27 (5):243-54.

Jackson, V. N., N. T. Price, L. Carpenter, and A. P. Halestrap. 1997. "Cloning of the monocarboxylate transporter isoform MCT2 from rat testis provides evidence that expression in tissues is species-specific and may involve post-transcriptional regulation." Biochem J no. 324 ( Pt 2):447-53.

Jansen, S., M. Pantaleon, and P. L. Kaye. 2008. "Characterization and regulation of monocarboxylate cotransporters Slc16a7 and Slc16a3 in preimplantation mouse embryos." Biol Reprod no. 79 (1):84-92. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.107.066811.

Johnson, M. L., R. Hussien, M. A. Horning, and G. A. Brooks. 2011. "Transpulmonary pyruvate kinetics." Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol no. 301 (3):R769-74. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00206.2011.

Kakizaki, F., K. Aoki, H. Miyoshi, N. Carrasco, M. Aoki, and M. M. Taketo. 2010. "CDX transcription factors positively regulate expression of solute carrier family 5, member 8 in the colonic epithelium." Gastroenterology no. 138 (2):627-35. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.10.047.

Keshari, K. R., R. Sriram, B. L. Koelsch, M. Van Criekinge, D. M. Wilson, J. Kurhanewicz, and Z. J. Wang. 2013. "Hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance reveals rapid lactate export in metastatic renal cell carcinomas." Cancer Res no. 73 (2):529-38. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-3461.

Kido, Y., I. Tamai, T. Nakanishi, T. Kagami, I. Hirosawa, Y. Sai, and A. Tsuji. 2002. "Evaluation of blood-brain barrier transporters by co-culture of brain capillary endothelial cells with astrocytes." Drug Metab Pharmacokinet no. 17 (1):34-41.

Kirat, D. 2010. "Effect of pectin feeding on monocarboxylate transporters in rat adrenal gland." J Comp Physiol B no. 180 (1):57-65. doi: 10.1007/s00360-009-0382-0.

Kirat, D., and S. Kato. 2009. "Monocarboxylate transporter genes in the mammary gland of lactating cows." Histochem Cell Biol no. 132 (4):447-55. doi: 10.1007/s00418-009-0621-1.

Kirat, D., Y. Matsuda, N. Yamashiki, H. Hayashi, and S. Kato. 2007. "Expression, cellular localization, and functional role of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants." Gene no. 391 (1-2):140-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2006.12.020.

Kirk, P., M. C. Wilson, C. Heddle, M. H. Brown, A. N. Barclay, and A. P. Halestrap. 2000. "CD147 is tightly associated with lactate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 and facilitates their cell surface expression." EMBO J no. 19 (15):3896-904. doi: 10.1093/emboj/19.15.3896.

Kuchiiwa, T., J. Nio-Kobayashi, H. Takahashi-Iwanaga, T. Yajima, and T. Iwanaga. 2011. "Cellular expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the female reproductive organ of mice: implications for the genital lactate shuttle." Histochem Cell Biol no. 135 (4):351-60. doi: 10.1007/s00418-011-0794-2.

Kutzing, M. K., and B. L. Firestein. 2008. "Altered uric acid levels and disease states." J Pharmacol Exp Ther no. 324 (1):1-7. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.129031.

Lauritzen, F., N. C. de Lanerolle, T. S. Lee, D. D. Spencer, J. H. Kim, L. H. Bergersen, and T. Eid. 2011. "Monocarboxylate transporter 1 is deficient on microvessels in the human epileptogenic hippocampus." Neurobiol Dis no. 41 (2):577-84. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.11.005.

Lean, C. B., and E. J. Lee. 2012. "Genetic variations of the MCT4 (SLC16A3) gene in the Chinese and Indian populations of Singapore." Drug Metab Pharmacokinet no. 27 (4):456-64.

Lee, G. H., D. S. Kim, M. J. Chung, S. W. Chae, H. R. Kim, and H. J. Chae. 2011. "Lysyl oxidase-like-1 enhances lung metastasis when lactate accumulation and monocarboxylate transporter expression are involved." Oncol Lett no. 2 (5):831-838. doi: 10.3892/ol.2011.353.

Leino, R. L., D. Z. Gerhart, and L. R. Drewes. 1999. "Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) abundance in brains of suckling and adult rats: a quantitative electron microscopic immunogold study." Brain Res Dev Brain Res no. 113 (1-2):47-54.

Leino, R. L., D. Z. Gerhart, R. Duelli, B. E. Enerson, and L. R. Drewes. 2001. "Diet-induced ketosis increases monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) levels in rat brain." Neurochem Int no. 38 (6):519-27.

Lin, R. Y., J. C. Vera, R. S. Chaganti, and D. W. Golde. 1998. "Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter." J Biol Chem no. 273 (44):28959-65.

Lu, Y., T. Nakanishi, and I. Tamai. 2013. "Functional cooperation of SMCTs and URAT1 for renal reabsorption transport of urate." Drug Metab Pharmacokinet no. 28 (2):153-8.

Mac, M., and K. A. Nalecz. 2003. "Expression of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT) in brain cells. Implication for branched chain alpha-ketoacids transport in neurons." Neurochem Int no. 43 (4-5):305-9.

Martin, P. M., Y. Dun, B. Mysona, S. Ananth, P. Roon, S. B. Smith, and V. Ganapathy. 2007. "Expression of the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporters SMCT1 (SLC5A8) and SMCT2 (SLC5A12) in retina." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci no. 48 (7):3356-63. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-0888.

Martin, P. M., E. Gopal, S. Ananth, L. Zhuang, S. Itagaki, B. M. Prasad, S. B. Smith, P. D. Prasad, and V. Ganapathy. 2006. "Identity of SMCT1 (SLC5A8) as a neuron-specific Na+-coupled transporter for active uptake of L-lactate and ketone bodies in the brain." J Neurochem no. 98 (1):279-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03878.x.

Martinov, V., S. M. Rizvi, S. A. Weiseth, J. Sagave, L. H. Bergersen, and G. Valen. 2009. "Increased expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 after acute ischemia of isolated, perfused mouse hearts." Life Sci no. 85 (9-10):379-85. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2009.07.001.

McCullagh, K. J., R. C. Poole, A. P. Halestrap, M. O'Brien, and A. Bonen. 1996. "Role of the lactate transporter (MCT1) in skeletal muscles." Am J Physiol no. 271 (1 Pt 1):E143-50.

Merezhinskaya, N., S. A. Ogunwuyi, and W. N. Fishbein. 2006. "Expression of monocarboxylate transporter 4 in human platelets, leukocytes, and tissues assessed by antibodies raised against terminal versus pre-terminal peptides." Mol Genet Metab no. 87 (2):152-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2005.09.029.

Messonnier, L., C. Denis, L. Feasson, and J. R. Lacour. 2006. "An elevated sarcolemmal lactate (and proton) transport capacity is an advantage during muscle activity in healthy humans." J Appl Physiol (1985). doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00807.2006.

Moreau, A., M. Le Vee, E. Jouan, Y. Parmentier, and O. Fardel. 2011. "Drug transporter expression in human macrophages." Fundam Clin Pharmacol no. 25 (6):743-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2010.00913.x.

Nagai, A., K. Takebe, J. Nio-Kobayashi, H. Takahashi-Iwanaga, and T. Iwanaga. 2010. "Cellular expression of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family in the placenta of mice." Placenta no. 31 (2):126-33. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2009.11.013.

Nguyen, T. T., and J. A. Bonanno. 2011. "Bicarbonate, NBCe1, NHE, and carbonic anhydrase activity enhance lactate-H+ transport in bovine corneal endothelium." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci no. 52 (11):8086-93. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8086.

Nguyen, T. T., and J. A. Bonanno. 2012. "Lactate-H(+) transport is a significant component of the in vivo corneal endothelial pump." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci no. 53 (4):2020-9. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-9475.

Okamura, H., S. S. Spicer, and B. A. Schulte. 2001. "Developmental expression of monocarboxylate transporter in the gerbil inner ear." Neuroscience no. 107 (3):499-505.

Ovens, M. J., C. Manoharan, M. C. Wilson, C. M. Murray, and A. P. Halestrap. 2010. "The inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) by AR-C155858 is modulated by the associated ancillary protein." Biochem J no. 431 (2):217-25. doi: 10.1042/BJ20100890.

Pellerin, L., L. H. Bergersen, A. P. Halestrap, and K. Pierre. 2005. "Cellular and subcellular distribution of monocarboxylate transporters in cultured brain cells and in the adult brain." J Neurosci Res no. 79 (1-2):55-64. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20307.

Pellerin, L., G. Pellegri, J. L. Martin, and P. J. Magistretti. 1998. "Expression of monocarboxylate transporter mRNAs in mouse brain: support for a distinct role of lactate as an energy substrate for the neonatal vs. adult brain." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A no. 95 (7):3990-5.

Perez de Heredia, F., I. S. Wood, and P. Trayhurn. 2010. "Hypoxia stimulates lactate release and modulates monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) expression in human adipocytes." Pflugers Arch no. 459 (3):509-18. doi: 10.1007/s00424-009-0750-3.

Pertega-Gomes, N., J. R. Vizcaino, C. Gouveia, C. Jeronimo, R. M. Henrique, C. Lopes, and F. Baltazar. 2013. "Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) as putative biomarker in prostate cancer." Prostate no. 73 (7):763-9. doi: 10.1002/pros.22620.

Pertega-Gomes, N., J. R. Vizcaino, V. Miranda-Goncalves, C. Pinheiro, J. Silva, H. Pereira, P. Monteiro, R. M. Henrique, R. M. Reis, C. Lopes, and F. Baltazar. 2011. "Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) and CD147 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer." BMC Cancer no. 11:312. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-312.

Philp, N. J., D. Wang, H. Yoon, and L. M. Hjelmeland. 2003. "Polarized expression of monocarboxylate transporters in human retinal pigment epithelium and ARPE-19 cells." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci no. 44 (4):1716-21.

Philp, N. J., H. Yoon, and E. F. Grollman. 1998. "Monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 is located in the apical membrane and MCT3 in the basal membrane of rat RPE." Am J Physiol no. 274 (6 Pt 2):R1824-8.

Philp, N. J., H. Yoon, and L. Lombardi. 2001. "Mouse MCT3 gene is expressed preferentially in retinal pigment and choroid plexus epithelia." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol no. 280 (5):C1319-26.

Pierre, K., A. Parent, P. Y. Jayet, A. P. Halestrap, U. Scherrer, and L. Pellerin. 2007. "Enhanced expression of three monocarboxylate transporter isoforms in the brain of obese mice." J Physiol no. 583 (Pt 2):469-86. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.138594.

Pierre, K., L. Pellerin, R. Debernardi, B. M. Riederer, and P. J. Magistretti. 2000. "Cell-specific localization of monocarboxylate transporters, MCT1 and MCT2, in the adult mouse brain revealed by double immunohistochemical labeling and confocal microscopy." Neuroscience no. 100 (3):617-27.

Pifferi, F., S. Tremblay, E. Croteau, M. Fortier, J. Tremblay-Mercier, R. Lecomte, and S. C. Cunnane. 2011. "Mild experimental ketosis increases brain uptake of 11C-acetoacetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose: a dual-tracer PET imaging study in rats." Nutr Neurosci no. 14 (2):51-8. doi: 10.1179/1476830510Y.0000000001.

Pilegaard, H., G. Terzis, A. Halestrap, and C. Juel. 1999. "Distribution of the lactate/H+ transporter isoforms MCT1 and MCT4 in human skeletal muscle." Am J Physiol no. 276 (5 Pt 1):E843-8.

Pinheiro, C., A. Albergaria, J. Paredes, B. Sousa, R. Dufloth, D. Vieira, F. Schmitt, and F. Baltazar. 2010. "Monocarboxylate transporter 1 is up-regulated in basal-like breast carcinoma." Histopathology no. 56 (7):860-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2010.03560.x.

Rafiki, A., J. L. Boulland, A. P. Halestrap, O. P. Ottersen, and L. Bergersen. 2003. "Highly differential expression of the monocarboxylate transporters MCT2 and MCT4 in the developing rat brain." Neuroscience no. 122 (3):677-88.

Rato, L., M. G. Alves, S. Socorro, R. A. Carvalho, J. E. Cavaco, and P. F. Oliveira. 2012. "Metabolic modulation induced by oestradiol and DHT in immature rat Sertoli cells cultured in vitro." Biosci Rep no. 32 (1):61-9. doi: 10.1042/BSR20110030.

Ritzhaupt, A., A. Ellis, K. B. Hosie, and S. P. Shirazi-Beechey. 1998. "The characterization of butyrate transport across pig and human colonic luminal membrane." J Physiol no. 507 ( Pt 3):819-30.

Robinet, C., and L. Pellerin. 2011. "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances the hippocampal expression of key postsynaptic proteins in vivo including the monocarboxylate transporter MCT2." Neuroscience no. 192:155-63. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.06.059.

Rodriguez, A. M., B. Perron, L. Lacroix, B. Caillou, G. Leblanc, M. Schlumberger, J. M. Bidart, and T. Pourcher. 2002. "Identification and characterization of a putative human iodide transporter located at the apical membrane of thyrocytes." J Clin Endocrinol Metab no. 87 (7):3500-3. doi: 10.1210/jcem.87.7.8797.

Sepponen, K., M. Ruusunen, J. A. Pakkanen, and A. R. Poso. 2007. "Expression of CD147 and monocarboxylate transporters MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 in porcine small intestine and colon." Vet J no. 174 (1):122-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.05.015.

Settle, P., K. Mynett, P. Speake, E. Champion, I. M. Doughty, C. P. Sibley, S. W. D'Souza, and J. Glazier. 2004. "Polarized lactate transporter activity and expression in the syncytiotrophoblast of the term human placenta." Placenta no. 25 (6):496-504. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2003.11.009.

Shimoyama, Y., Y. Akihara, D. Kirat, H. Iwano, K. Hirayama, Y. Kagawa, T. Ohmachi, K. Matsuda, M. Okamoto, T. Kadosawa, H. Yokota, and H. Taniyama. 2007. "Expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 in oral and ocular canine melanocytic tumors." Vet Pathol no. 44 (4):449-57. doi: 10.1354/vp.44-4-449.

Shimozono, M., M. A. Scofield, and P. Wangemann. 1997. "Functional evidence for a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) in strial marginal cells and molecular evidence for MCT1 and MCT2 in stria vascularis." Hear Res no. 114 (1-2):213-22.

So, A., and B. Thorens. 2010. "Uric acid transport and disease." J Clin Invest no. 120 (6):1791-9. doi: 10.1172/JCI42344.

Sonveaux, P., F. Vegran, T. Schroeder, M. C. Wergin, J. Verrax, Z. N. Rabbani, C. J. De Saedeleer, K. M. Kennedy, C. Diepart, B. F. Jordan, M. J. Kelley, B. Gallez, M. L. Wahl, O. Feron, and M. W. Dewhirst. 2008. "Targeting lactate-fueled respiration selectively kills hypoxic tumor cells in mice." J Clin Invest no. 118 (12):3930-42. doi: 10.1172/JCI36843.

Srinivas, S. R., E. Gopal, L. Zhuang, S. Itagaki, P. M. Martin, Y. J. Fei, V. Ganapathy, and P. D. Prasad. 2005. "Cloning and functional identification of slc5a12 as a sodium-coupled low-affinity transporter for monocarboxylates (SMCT2)." Biochem J no. 392 (Pt 3):655-64. doi: 10.1042/BJ20050927.

Suzuki, A., S. A. Stern, O. Bozdagi, G. W. Huntley, R. H. Walker, P. J. Magistretti, and C. M. Alberini. 2011. "Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation." Cell no. 144 (5):810-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.018.

Takanaga, H., I. Tamai, S. Inaba, Y. Sai, H. Higashida, H. Yamamoto, and A. Tsuji. 1995. "cDNA cloning and functional characterization of rat intestinal monocarboxylate transporter." Biochem Biophys Res Commun no. 217 (1):370-7. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1995.2786.

Takebe, K., J. Nio-Kobayashi, H. Takahashi-Iwanaga, T. Yajima, and T. Iwanaga. 2009. "Cellular expression of a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) in the mammary gland and sebaceous gland of mice." Histochem Cell Biol no. 131 (3):401-9. doi: 10.1007/s00418-008-0543-3.

Takiue, Y., M. Hosoyamada, M. Kimura, and H. Saito. 2011. "The effect of female hormones upon urate transport systems in the mouse kidney." Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids no. 30 (2):113-9. doi: 10.1080/15257770.2010.551645.

Tamai, I., H. Takanaga, H. Maeda, Y. Sai, T. Ogihara, H. Higashida, and A. Tsuji. 1995. "Participation of a proton-cotransporter, MCT1, in the intestinal transport of monocarboxylic acids." Biochem Biophys Res Commun no. 214 (2):482-9. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1995.2312.

Teramae, H., T. Yoshikawa, R. Inoue, K. Ushida, K. Takebe, J. Nio-Kobayashi, and T. Iwanaga. 2010. "The cellular expression of SMCT2 and its comparison with other transporters for monocarboxylates in the mouse digestive tract." Biomed Res no. 31 (4):239-49.

Treem, W. R., N. Ahsan, M. Shoup, and J. S. Hyams. 1994. "Fecal short-chain fatty acids in children with inflammatory bowel disease." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr no. 18 (2):159-64.

Tykarski, A. 1988. "Mechanism of hypouricemia in Hodgkin's disease. Isolated defect in postsecretory reabsorption of uric acid." Nephron no. 50 (3):217-9.

Vander Heiden, M. G., L. C. Cantley, and C. B. Thompson. 2009. "Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation." Science no. 324 (5930):1029-33. doi: 10.1126/science.1160809.

Vellonen, K. S., M. Hakli, N. Merezhinskaya, T. Tervo, P. Honkakoski, and A. Urtti. 2010. "Monocarboxylate transport in human corneal epithelium and cell lines." Eur J Pharm Sci no. 39 (4):241-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2009.12.006.

Vigueira, P. A., K. S. McCommis, G. G. Schweitzer, M. S. Remedi, K. T. Chambers, X. Fu, W. G. McDonald, S. L. Cole, J. R. Colca, R. F. Kletzien, S. C. Burgess, and B. N. Finck. 2014. "Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 hypomorphism in mice leads to defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion." Cell Rep no. 7 (6):2042-53. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.05.017.

Wang, Q., I. M. Darling, and M. E. Morris. 2006. "Transport of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in rat kidney membrane vesicles: Role of monocarboxylate transporters." J Pharmacol Exp Ther no. 318 (2):751-61. doi: 10.1124/jpet.106.105965.

Wang, Q., and M. E. Morris. 2007a. "Flavonoids modulate monocarboxylate transporter-1-mediated transport of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in vitro and in vivo." Drug Metab Dispos no. 35 (2):201-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.012369.

Wang, Q., and M. E. Morris. 2007b. "The role of monocarboxylate transporter 2 and 4 in the transport of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in mammalian cells." Drug Metab Dispos no. 35 (8):1393-9. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.014852.

Waring, W. S., D. J. Webb, and S. R. Maxwell. 2001. "Systemic uric acid administration increases serum antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol no. 38 (3):365-71.

Welter, H., and R. Claus. 2008. "Expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in cells of the porcine intestine." Cell Biol Int no. 32 (6):638-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.01.008.

Whitaker-Menezes, D., U. E. Martinez-Outschoorn, Z. Lin, A. Ertel, N. Flomenberg, A. K. Witkiewicz, R. C. Birbe, A. Howell, S. Pavlides, R. Gandara, R. G. Pestell, F. Sotgia, N. J. Philp, and M. P. Lisanti. 2011. "Evidence for a stromal-epithelial "lactate shuttle" in human tumors: MCT4 is a marker of oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts." Cell Cycle no. 10 (11):1772-83.

Wilson, M. C., V. N. Jackson, C. Heddle, N. T. Price, H. Pilegaard, C. Juel, A. Bonen, I. Montgomery, O. F. Hutter, and A. P. Halestrap. 1998. "Lactic acid efflux from white skeletal muscle is catalyzed by the monocarboxylate transporter isoform MCT3." J Biol Chem no. 273 (26):15920-6.

Yanase, H., K. Takebe, J. Nio-Kobayashi, H. Takahashi-Iwanaga, and T. Iwanaga. 2008. "Cellular expression of a sodium-dependent monocarboxylate transporter (Slc5a8) and the MCT family in the mouse kidney." Histochem Cell Biol no. 130 (5):957-66. doi: 10.1007/s00418-008-0490-z.

Yang, C., B. Ko, C. T. Hensley, L. Jiang, A. T. Wasti, J. Kim, J. Sudderth, M. A. Calvaruso, L. Lumata, M. Mitsche, J. Rutter, M. E. Merritt, and R. J. DeBerardinis. 2014. "Glutamine oxidation maintains the TCA cycle and cell survival during impaired mitochondrial pyruvate transport." Mol Cell no. 56 (3):414-24. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2014.09.025.

Yoon, H., A. Fanelli, E. F. Grollman, and N. J. Philp. 1997. "Identification of a unique monocarboxylate transporter (MCT3) in retinal pigment epithelium." Biochem Biophys Res Commun no. 234 (1):90-4. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1997.6588.

Yoshida, Y., G. P. Holloway, V. Ljubicic, H. Hatta, L. L. Spriet, D. A. Hood, and A. Bonen. 2007. "Negligible direct lactate oxidation in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria obtained from red and white rat skeletal muscle." J Physiol no. 582 (Pt 3):1317-35. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.135095.

Zhang, F., S. J. Vannucci, N. J. Philp, and I. A. Simpson. 2005. "Monocarboxylate transporter expression in the spontaneous hypertensive rat: effect of stroke." J Neurosci Res no. 79 (1-2):139-45. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20312.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.