The Potential for Change in Rehabilitation and Reentry for Behaviorally and Mentally Disordered Offenders in the Post-Affordable Care Act and Second Chance Act Health Care Climate

Main Article Content

Reginaldo Chase Espinoza Debra Warner

Abstract

The United States has the highest incarceration rate among developed nations. With more than half of offenders estimated to have mental illness or addiction, correctional systems are the largest de-facto mental and behavioral health service providers. Correctional facilities are often poorly equipped to serve as treatment facilities and are limited in scope of services due to budgetary restrictions. Historically, the coordination of care during release from jails and prisons is insufficient to secure efficient and uninterrupted care. With low continuity of community-based services during reentry periods, offenders are more likely to become caught in the revolving door of the criminal justice system. Specialty courts and new treatment and reentry models have emerged from evidence-based roots over the past decades, though such approaches have yet to become ubiquitous fixtures in the justice system. The cost of disease burden remains substantial, and large-scale implementation of evidence-based reentry has yet to become a staple of the justice system. In 2014, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) made affordable health care plans and Medicaid coverage available to justice-involved individuals, expanding the possibilities for transitional care. This article reviews the current state of mental and behavioral health care for offender populations, evidence-based models for improving reentry processes, the economic impact of mental and behavioral disorders in justice-involved populations, directions for the future of treatment and reentry, and the implications of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for bringing about long-term change in the systemic approach to high-need offenders.

Article Details

How to Cite
ESPINOZA, Reginaldo Chase; WARNER, Debra. The Potential for Change in Rehabilitation and Reentry for Behaviorally and Mentally Disordered Offenders in the Post-Affordable Care Act and Second Chance Act Health Care Climate. Journal of Economics and Banking, [S.l.], n. 1, mar. 2017. ISSN 2376-2160. Available at: <http://www.journals.ke-i.org/index.php/econ/article/view/171>. Date accessed: 20 nov. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/jeb.v0i2.171.
Section
Articles

References

Almquist, L., & Dodd, E. (2009). Mental health courts: A guide to research, informed policy, and practice. New York: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Anasseril, D. E. (2007). Care of the mentally ill in prisons: Challenges and solutions. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 35(4), 406-410.

Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice and practice. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39-55.

Anglin, M. D., Nosyk, B., Jaffe, A., Urada, D., & Evans, E. (2013). Offender diversion into substance use disorder treatment: The economic impact of California’s proposition 36. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1096-1102.

Anonymous. (2015). Position statement: Optimizing insurance coverage for detainees and inmates postrelease. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 21(2), 186-187.

Aos, S., Miller, M., & Drake, E. (2006). Evidence-based public policy options to reduce future prison construction, criminal justice costs, and crime rates. Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

Ardino, V. (2013). Offending behavior: The role of trauma and ptsd. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 3.

Ardino, V., Milani, L., & Di Blasio, P. (2013). Ptsd and re-offending risk: The mediating role of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4.

Baillargeon, J., Hoge, S. K., & Penn, J. V. (2010). Addressing the challenge of community reentry among released inmates with serious mental illness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 46(3-4), 361-375.

Ballard, E., & Teasdale, B. (2014). Reconsidering the debate: An examination of the predictors of arrest among people with major mental disorders. Criminal Justice Policy Review, December 17, 2004, 1-24.

Bechelli, M. J., Caudy, M., Gardner, T. M., Huber, A., Mancuso, D., Samuels, P. . . . Venters, H. D. (2014). Case studies from three states: Breaking down silos between health care and criminal justice. Health Affairs, 33(3), 474-81.

Belenko, S., & Peugh, J. (2005). Estimating drug treatment needs among state prison inmates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77(3), 269-281. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.08.023

Bernstein, S. L., & D'Onofrio, G. (2013). A promising approach for emergency departments to care for patients with substance use and behavioral disorders. Health Affairs, 32(12), 2122-8.

Boutwell, A. E., & Freedman, J. (2014). Coverage expansion and the criminal justice-involved population: Implications for plans and service connectivity. Health Affairs, 33(3), 482-6.

Buck, J. A. (2011). The looming expansion and transformation of public substance abuse treatment under the Affordable Care Act. Health Affairs, 30(8), 1402-1410.

Castillo, E. D., & Alarid, L. F. (2011). Factors associated with recidivism among offenders with mental illness. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(1), 98-117.

Chandler, D. W., & Spicer, G. (2006). Integrated treatment for jail recidivists with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders. Community Mental Health Journal, 42(4), 405-425. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-006-9055-6

Cloyes, K. G., Wong, B., Latimer, S., & Abarca, J. (2010). Time to prison return for offenders with serious mental illness released from prison: A survival analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(2), 175-187.

Cuellar, A. E., & Cheema, J. (2012). As roughly 700,000 prisoners are released annually, about half will gain health coverage and care under federal laws. Health Affairs, 31(5), 931-8.

Cusack, K. J., Morrissey, J. P., Cuddeback, G. S., Prins, A., & Williams, D. M. (2010). Criminal justice involvement, behavioral health service use, and costs of forensic assertive community treatment: A randomized trial. Community Mental Health Journal, 46, 356-363.

DeMatteo, D., LaDuke, C., Locklair, B. R., & Heilbrun, K. (2013). Community-based alternatives for justice-involved individuals with severe mental illness: Diversion, problem-solving courts, and reentry. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(2), 64-71.

Drake, E. K., Fumia, D., & He, L. (2014). Washington’s residential Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative: Recidivism & benefit-cost analysis. (Doc. No. 14-12-1901). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

Easley, C. E. (2011). Together we can make a difference: The case for transnational action for improved health in prisons. Public Health, 125(10), 675-679.

Fletcher, B., Lehman, W., Wexler, H., Taxman, F., & Young, D. (2009). Measuring collaboration and integration activities in criminal justice and substance abuse treatment agencies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 103(1), S54-S64.

Glaze, L. E., & Kaeble, D. (2014). Correctional populations in the United States, 2013. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Heilbrun, K., Hart, A., & Green, H. (2009). Risk assessment in evidence-based sentencing: Context and promising uses. Chapman Journal of Criminal Justice, 1(1), 127-142.

Held, M. L., Brown, C. A., Frost, L. E., Hickey, J. S., & Buck, D. S. (2012). Integrated primary and behavioral health care in patient-centered medical homes for jail releasees with mental illness. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(4), 533-551.

James, N. (2015). Offender reentry: Correctional statistics, reintegration into the community, and recidivism. Congressional Research Service.

James, D. J., & Glaze, L. E. (2006). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, September 2006.

Khoury, L., Tang, Y. L., Bradley, B., Cubells, J. F., & Ressler, K. J. (2010). Substance use, childhood traumatic experience, and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban civilian population. Depression and Anxiety, 27(12), 1077-1086.

Kimball, A., Diehl, S., & Honberg, R. (2013, May 1). Medicaid expansion and mental health care. Retrieved from nami.org

Koetzle, D., Listwan, S. J., Guastaferro, W. P., & Kobus, K. (2013). Treating high-risk offenders in the community: The potential of the drug courts. Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 59(5), 449-465.

Lamb, H. R., Weinberger, L. E., & Gross, B. H. (2004). Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: Some perspectives. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 75(2), 107-126.

Lamberti, S. J., Weisman, R., & Faden, D. I. (2004). Forensic assertive community treatment: Preventing incarceration of adults with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 55(11), 1285-1293.

Lutze, F. E., Rosky, J. W., & Hamilton, Z. K. (2014). Homelessness and reentry: A multisite outcome evaluation of Washington state’s reentry housing program for high-risk offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior 41(4), 471-491.

Marks, J. S., & Turner, N. (2014). The critical link between health care and jails. Health Affairs, 33(3), 443-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1510370516?accountid=34120

Marlowe, D. B. (2011). Evidence-based policies and practices for drug-involved offenders. The Prison Journal, 91(3), 27S-47S.

Mcdonnell, M., Brookes, L., & Lurigio, A. J. (2014). The promise of healthcare reform in transforming services for jail releasees and other criminal justice populations. Health & Justice, 2(1), 1-9. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2194-7899-2-9

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Principles of drug abuse treatment: A research-based guide. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 1999 Oct. (NIH Publication No. 12-4180).

Pogorzelski, W., Wolff, N., Pan, K., & Blitz, C. L. (2005). Behavioral health problems, ex-offender reentry policies, and the “Second Chance Act”. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1718-1724.

Prendergast, M. L. (2009). Interventions to promote successful re-entry among drug-abusing parolees. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 5(1), 4-13.

Redlich, A. D., Steadman, H. J., Monahan, J., Pamela, C. R., & Petrila, J. (2006). Patterns of practice in mental health courts: A national survey. Law and Human Behavior, 30(3), 347-62. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10979-006-9036-x

Regenstein, M., & Rosenbaum, S. (2014). What the affordable care act means for people with jail stays. Health Affairs, 33(3), 448-54.

Rezansoff, S. N., Moniruzzaman, A., Gress, C., & Somers, J. M. (2013). Psychiatric diagnoses and multiyear criminal recidivism in a Canadian provincial offender population. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19(4), 443-453.

Sacks, S., McKendrick, K., Sacks, J. Y., & Cleland, C. M. (2010). Modified therapeutic community for co-occurring disorders: Single investigator meta analysis. Substance Abuse, 31(3), 146-161.

Sadeh, N., & McNiel, D. E. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder increases risk of criminal recidivism among justice-involved persons with mental disorders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, December 16, 2014.

Sarteschi, C. M. (2013). Mentally ill offenders involved with the U.S. criminal justice system: A synthesis. SAGE Open, July 2013, 3(3).

Scott-Hayward, C. S. (2009). The fiscal crisis in corrections: Rethinking policies and practices. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.

Skeem, J. L., Winter, E., Kennealy, P. J., Eno Louden, J., & Tatar, J. R. (2013, December 30). Offenders with mental illness have criminogenic needs, too: Toward recidivism reduction. Law and Human Behavior. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/lhb0000054

Soderstrom, I. R. (2007). Mental illness in offender populations: Prevalence, duty and implications. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 45(1-2), 1-17.

Somers, S. A., Nicolella, E., Hamblin, A., McMahon, S. M., Heiss, C., & Brockmann, B. W. (2014). Medicaid expansion: Considerations for states regarding newly eligible jail-involved individuals. Health Affairs, 33(3), 455-61.

Sung, H., Mahoney, A. M., & Mellow, J. (2011). Substance abuse treatment gap among adult parolees: Prevalence, correlates, and barriers. Criminal Justice Review, 36(1), 40-57.

Torrey, E. F., Kennard, A. D., Eslinger, S. D., Lamb, R., & Pavle, J. (2010). More mentally ill persons are in jails and prisons than hospitals: A survey of the states. Virginia: Treatment Advocacy Center.

Weisman, R. L., Lamberti, J. S., & Price, N. (2004). Integrating criminal justice, community healthcare, and support services for adults with severe mental disorders. Psychiatric Quarterly, 75(1), 71-85.

Wormith, J. S., Althouse, R., Simpson, M., Reitzel, L. R., Fagan, T. J., & Morgan, R. D. (2007). The rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders: The current landscape and some future directions for correctional psychology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(7), 879-892.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.